Daniel 11

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The historical aspect of this chapter in the book of Daniel was researched and put together by Eschatology in the Prophecies of Daniel website. More specifically, their study on Daniel 11. Credit where credit is due, I’m no history buff. I would also like to thank Ryszard Ewiak for his input on the history. It’s absolutely amazing how accurate the Bible is in prophecy. We should expect the future end to happen just as scripture says. This prophecy was given in the third year of Cyrus. Daniel 10:1

Daniel 11
1,2: Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.
Xerxes I Ahasuerus (486-465 BC) was the fourth Persian king after Cyrus, who married a Jewess named Esther, and attempted to conquer Greece in 480 BC but failed to conquer.
[Alexander the Great (336-323 BC)]
3,4: And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.
With Alexander’s premature death in 323 BC, the Grecian Empire was broken into four separate divisions under the control of four former generals who became kings sixteen years later, after considerable political wrangling and the murder of all of Alexander’s heirs.
  1. Seleucus I - who began the Seleucid (Syrian) empire, from Turkey to India
  2. Cassander - who took over Macedonia (Greece)
  3. Lysimachus - who took Thracia (between Greece and Turkey)
  4. Ptolemy I - who ruled over Egypt
[Ptolemy I Soter (323-285 BC)]
5: And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
Ptolemy I ruled over Egypt and the land of Israel for 38 years and Seleucus I ruled over Babylonia, adding extensive territories both east and west. Ultimately, Seleucus I united three of the four kingdoms under his control as king of the North.
6: And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king’s daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
Ptolemy Ceraunus, younger brother of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC), killed Seleucus I. Antiochus I Soter (280-261 BC) succeeded his father Seleucus I and was succeeded by his son Antiochus II Theos (261-246 BC). Berenice II, daughter of the king of Egypt, Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC), married Antiochus II. Ptolemy II died and Antiochus II restored Laodice and put away Berenice II. Antiochus II was then poisoned by Laodice, and placed her son Seleucus II Callinicus (246-226 BC) on the throne. Afterwards, Seleucus II killed Berenice and her son at Daphne near Antioch.
[Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-221 BC)]
7,8: But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
The death of Berenice resulted in war between Seleucus II Kallinikos “The king of the north” and Berenice’s brother Ptolemy III Euergetes “king of the south” (246-221 BC), who became the king of Egypt after the death of his father. He attacked Syria, Phoenicia, Cilicia, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia, capturing each. Ptolemy III overtook Antioch and/or Seleucia, the port of Antioch, where he recovered 2,500 Egyptian gods and 40,000 talents of silver which had been carried off to Syria by the Persian king Cambyses, when he conquered Egypt in 525 BC.
9,10: So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land. But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
Seleucus III Ceraunus (226-223 BC) and Antiochus III Magnus “The king of the north” (223-187 BC), respectively, succeeded their father Seleucus II. Ptolemy IV Philopater (221-203 BC) succeeded Ptolemy III as king of Egypt, and, he was attacked by Antiochus III, who beat the army of Ptolemy IV near Berytus. Fighting with an army of 78,000 men, Antiochus III (the Great) took the battle as far as the fortress of the city of Raphia in southern Palestine.
[Battle for Raphia in 217 BC]
11,12: And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand. And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
The historian Polybius recorded that during the battle for Raphia in 217 BC, the raging defensive forces of Ptolemy IV, “The king of the south,” which numbered 75,000 men defeated the attacking forces of Antiochus III, “The king of the north,” and killed 10,000 infantrymen. However, subsequently, a force of Egyptians fought internally against Ptolemy IV who was puffed up with pride and living in luxury after his victory over Antiochus III. The civil battles resulted in the death of 60,000 Egyptian citizens.
[Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181 BC)]
13,14: For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbersH1121,H6530 [violent, tyrannical sons] of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
After the death of Ptolemy IV, he was succeeded by his son Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181 BC), who proceeded to battle with Antiochus III over Syria and Phoenicia. Jews from the land of Israel joined the forces of Antiochus III in the battle against Ptolemy V, but were defeated by the Ptolemaic general Scopas in 200 BC.
15-17: So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. [The next year, Antiochus III defeated general Scopas, capturing the port city of Sidon, recovering Syria and Phoenicia.] But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed. He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
Antiochus III was in command of a very large army, easily conquering the land of Israel, and obtaining the voluntary loyalty of the Jews without any resistance. While preparing for war with the Romans, Antiochus III came to the city of Raphia on the border of Egypt and made peace with Ptolemy V. In an effort to gain control in Egypt, Antiochus III offered his daughter Cleopatra I in marriage to Ptolemy V in 194 BC, however, after the marriage Cleopatra I became loyal to her husband, who sustained his control over Egypt.
[Fall of Antiochus III Magnus in 187 BC]
18,19: After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
The following year, Antiochus III turned his attention to Asia Minor and mainland Greece where some Grecian cities were under Roman control. The fleet of Antiochus III was twice defeated at sea by the Roman fleet near Phoceia and near Ephesus. Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I then sent an embassy to Rome to congratulate the Romans on their victory and to encourage the Romans to press on with the war in Asia. According to 1 Maccabees 1:10, during the war, Epiphanes, son of Antiochus III was captured and was taken to Rome as a hostage. Ultimately defeated in 190 BC by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus in the battle of Magnesia in Asia Minor, Antiochus III retired to the remainder of his kingdom and was killed three years later by the Persians, as he was robbing the temple of Jupiter Belus in Elymais, to raise money to pay the tributes imposed by the Romans.
[Seleucus IV Philopator (187 - 175 BC)]
20: Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few daysH3117 he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
Antiochus III was succeeded by his son Seleucus IV Philopator (187 - 175 BC). As a tributary of the Romans, Seleucus IV sent his tax collector, Heliodorus, to rob the temple of Jerusalem to obtain money, however, Heliodorus engineered a conspiracy against Seleucus IV and killed him. Shortly before the death of Seleucus IV, he sent his son Demetrius to Rome in a hostage swap for his brother Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC), who succeeded him.
[Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC) - Type of the antichrist]
21-23: And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant. And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
According to 2 Maccabees 3:1, Jerusalem was in complete peace under Seleucus IV who provided kingdom revenues in support of the daily sacrificial services. After the murder of Seleucus, Heliodorus, treasurer of the kingdom, assumed interim leadership. Antiochus IV who was in Athens at the time of his brother’s death, negotiated directly with the Romans, convincing them to keep Demetrius, rightful heir to the throne, in Rome as hostage. Through the Romans, as a part of a private friendship agreement with the king of Pergamus, who was given a portion of the kingdom of Antiochus III in return for assisting the Romans, it was determined that Antiochus IV would become king, in return for annual tribute to the Romans and the king of Pergamus. The king of Pergamus expelled Heliodorus and placed Antiochus IV on the throne.

Not the direct heir to the throne, Antiochus IV distinguished himself, as more of a commoner, by stealing from the palace treasury, rambling around town in Roman officer disguise, and drinking and carousing with people of the lowest rank. Taken for a madman by many in Syria, he deposed Onias the Jewish high-Priest, and sold the priesthood to Jason, the younger brother of Onias for 440 talents of silver. Onias was subsequently killed by Andronicus, deputy to Antiochus IV in Antioch. While Antiochus IV was away in Egypt, a false rumor spread that he was dead, sending Judea into revolt. Antiochus IV returned to Jerusalem with his vast army and indiscriminately killed 80,000 Jews from young to old, and sold another 40,000 Jews into slavery.
24: He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
Antiochus IV exacted tributes from the Palestinian nations, advanced the Grecian ideals and worship of pagan gods throughout his kingdom, appointed his cronies to positions of power as tribute collectors, allowed his friends to plunder the temple wealth, and he set his sights on capturing all of Egypt. He allowed the position of Jewish high-Priest to be bought and sold by the highest apostate bidder, and, according to 2 Maccabees 4:30, he gave the peoples of Tarsus and Mallus to his mistress, as a gift.
25,26: And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
Upon the death Antiochus’s sister Cleopatra I, the eunech Eulaeus, personal governor of Cleopatra’s son, claimed Phoenicia and Coelosyria from Antiochus IV as a dowery for the young boy king. In 170 BC, Antiochus IV attacked and overtook the Egyptian army between Pelusium and the mountain Casius. Capable of destroying the whole Egyptian army, Antiochus IV spared many as a friendly gesture, and, soon after, he captured all of the Egyptian cities, which he also befriended. Antiochus IV blamed the war on Eulaeus, personal governor to Ptolemy VI Philometer (181-146 BC), so as to make friends with the young boy king.
27: And both of these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
Antiochus IV entered into an outward, sycophant uncleship with the young king Ptolemy VI and let him assist with affairs of the kingdom, from the Egyptian city of Memphis. Egyptians in the city of Alexandria, seeing that Ptolemy VI was in the custody of Antiochus IV, declared Euergetes, younger brother to Ptolemy VI, to be the next king of Egypt. Pretending to establish Ptolemy VI on the Egyptian throne, Antiochus IV made war upon Euergetes and beseiged him and Euergetes’s sister in Alexandria, defeating the Egyptian navy at sea. At the same time, the Egyptians in Alexandria sent emissaries to Rome to request assistance.
28: Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
Antiochus IV returned to Syria in the spring of 169 BC, leaving Ptolemy VI to rule from Memphis. During the winter, Ptolemy VI and his brother Euergetes reconciled and were reunited in Alexandria, where Ptolemy VI assumed the role of the king of Egypt. While in Judea on the way to Syria, Antiochus IV directed his captains to make spoil of the Judean and Jewish wealth, capturing 1,800 talents of gold and silver, including the gold altar from the temple in Jerusalem, to be taken to Antioch. He ordered Apollonium, a captain of 22,000 men, to enter Jerusalem on the Sabbath in a parade of arms, killing grown men who came out to see them, taking young men and women captive, and selling them as slaves for money.
29,30: At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
Returning to Egypt in the spring of 168 BC to besiege Alexandria and the two young boy Egyptian kings, Antiochus IV was met by the Roman ambassadors, Popilius Loena, C. Decimius, and C. Hostilius. Prior to accepting a kiss on the hand from Antiochus IV, Popilius gave written tables to Antiochus IV upon which the Roman Senate had issued a decree of support for Egypt. Popilius drew a circle on the ground around Antiochus IV, and directed him to immediately offer his decision regarding his intentions toward the Egyptians, before leaving the circle he was standing in. Shocked by the approach of Popilius, Antiochus IV acknowledged the Roman demands and then he kissed the hand of Popilius, with the agreement to retreat to Syria. Antiochus IV returned to Syria, sulked at his treatment by the Romans, and vented his anger on his subjects the Jews by setting up the worship of heathen gods in all Judea, and, he killed those who would not worship his gods.
31: And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
According to 1 Maccabees 1:44-57, Antiochus IV sent word to Jerusalem to stop all burnt offerings and sacrifices. He ordered an end to circumcision, burned the books of the Law, erected altars in the sacred precincts of the temple of Jerusalem for the sacrifice of hogs and unclean cattle, erected a dreadful desecration upon the altar in the temple of Jerusalem, erected pagan altars in all Judean towns, and ended the burning of incense. And, according to 2 Maccabees 6:2 - 6:6, the forces of Antiochus IV forbade Sabbath worship, covered the altar of the temple in Jerusalem with abominable offerings, amused themselves by lying with prostitutes in the sacred precincts of the temple, and renamed the temple as Zeus Olympius. The dreadful desecration, known as the abomination that causes desecration, set up in the location of the altar in the temple of Jerusalem in 168 BC, was an altar and statue to the pagan god Jupiter (Zeus Olympius).
32,33: And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
The Jews were forced underground in order to keep the Sabbath and Antiochus IV openly rewarded apostate Jews with positions of responsibility. In 2 Maccabees 6 & 7, the stories of the deaths of Eleazar, a leading scribe, and a mother and her seven sons are told. Eleazar set an example for others by refusing to eat pork and voluntarily submitting to the torture wheel. The mother and her seven sons each refused to submit and were skinned alive, dismembered, and boiled in a hot pan. Despite attempts by Antiochus IV to convince the youngest son with flattery and promised riches, the son set an example for other youths to follow the laws of their fathers and forefathers, even unto death.
34: Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpenH5826 with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
Observing the cruelties of Antiochus IV, Judas, who was called Maccabeus, and his followers secretly entered the villages of Judea and called on their kinsmen to join them in revolt. By enlisting those who had clung to the Jewish religion, they mustered 6,000 men, and were joined by the Hasideans, who were war-like Israelite volunteers. At the same time, Judas selected Eupolemus and Jason to go to the Roman Senate as emissaries to request assistance. The Roman Senate was sympathetic and sent brass tablets to Jerusalem with a written testimony of Roman support for the Jews.
35: And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
The story of the death of the elderly scribe Eleazar in 2 Maccabees 6, is the most poignant story regarding the willingness of the wise to stumble under the Law. Given the choice of violating his conscience by eating pork to extend his natural life, or violating Jewish law by submitting to obvious suicidal death, Eleazar went straight to the torture wheel and ordered his oppressors to send him down to Hades at once. As he was dying, he said, “The Lord, in his holy knowledge, knows that, though I might have escaped death, I endure dreadful pains in my body from being flogged; but in my heart I am glad to suffer this, because I fear Him.” Similarly, one of the seven tortured sons, at the point of death, said to his oppressors, “Do not be falsely deceived; for we suffer these things because of ourselves, for we sin against our own God, so these amazing things have happened. But you must not suppose that you will go unpunished for having attempted to fight against our God.

[The Time of the End] My comments only follow...

I believe from verse 36 on, scripture is referring to the time of the end yet future. Verse 35 places the timing “even to the time of the end,” leading me to believe what follows is at the time of the end. Furthermore, Daniel 12 goes on to describe in greater detail the time of the abomination of desolation, tied also with Revelation 12:7-17 and the restrainer of 2 Thessalonians 2.
[The future antichrist]
36: And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
This will be when Christ returns in glory and throws the antichrist and false prophet into the lake of fire. Revelation 19:20 He will prosper for 42 months according to Revelation 13:5
[Description of the antichrist]
37-45: Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all. But in his estate shall he honour the God of forcesH4581: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps. But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many. And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

Could it be that Edom, Moab and the chief of the children of Ammon are the destination of protection in the wilderness for the remnant of the children of Israel that flee the time of Jacob’s trouble?


Research:

Antiochus IV

Both Historical and Future