And the LORD spake
unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they offered
before the LORD, and died; And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto
Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy [place]
within the vail before the mercy seat, which [is] upon the ark; that
he die not: for I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat. Thus
shall Aaron come into the holy [place]: with a young bullock for a sin
offering, and a ram for a burnt offering. He shall put on the holy linen
coat, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall
be girded with a linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be
attired: these [are] holy garments; therefore shall he wash his flesh
in water, and [so] put them on. And he shall take of the congregation
of the children of Israel two kids of the goats for a sin offering,
and one ram for a burnt offering. And Aaron shall offer his bullock
of the sin offering, which [is] for himself, and make an atonement for
himself, and for his house. And he shall take the two goats, and present
them before the LORD [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for the LORD,
and the other lot for the scapegoat. And Aaron shall bring the goat
upon which the LORD’S lot fell, and offer him [for] a sin offering.
But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be presented
alive before the LORD, to make an atonement with him, [and] to let him
go for a scapegoat into the wilderness. And Aaron shall bring the bullock
of the sin offering, which [is] for himself, and shall make an atonement
for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin
offering which [is] for himself: And he shall take a censer full of
burning coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands
full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring [it] within the vail:
And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the
cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that [is] upon the testimony,
that he die not: And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and
sprinkle [it] with his finger upon the mercy seat eastward; and before
the mercy seat shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven
times. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that [is] for
the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood
as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy
seat, and before the mercy seat: And he shall make an atonement for
the holy [place], because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel,
and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall
he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them
in the midst of their uncleanness. And there shall be no man in the
tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement
in the holy [place], until he come out, and have made an atonement for
himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.
And he shall go out unto the altar that [is] before the LORD, and make
an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and
of the blood of the goat, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar round
about. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven
times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children
of Israel. And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy [place],
and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring
the live goat: And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the
live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of
Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them
upon the head of the goat, and shall send [him] away by the hand of
a fit man into the wilderness: And the goat shall bear upon him all
their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the
goat in the wilderness. And Aaron shall come into the tabernacle of
the congregation, and shall put off the linen garments, which he put
on when he went into the holy [place], and shall leave them there: And
he shall wash his flesh with water in the holy place, and put on his
garments, and come forth, and offer his burnt offering, and the burnt
offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the
people. And the fat of the sin offering shall he burn upon the altar.
And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his clothes,
and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the camp. And
the bullock [for] the sin offering, and the goat [for] the sin offering,
whose blood was brought in to make atonement in the holy [place], shall
[one] carry forth without the camp; and they shall burn in the fire
their skins, and their flesh, and their dung. And he that burneth them
shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward
he shall come into the camp. And [this] shall be a statute for ever
unto you: [that] in the seventh month, on the tenth [day] of the month,
ye shall afflict your souls, and do no work at all, [whether it be]
one of your own country, or a stranger that sojourneth among you: For
on that day shall [the priest] make an atonement for you, to cleanse
you, [that] ye may be clean from all your sins before the LORD. It [shall
be] a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls, by
a statute for ever. And the priest, whom he shall anoint, and whom he
shall consecrate to minister in the priest’s office in his father’s
stead, shall make the atonement, and shall put on the linen clothes,
[even] the holy garments: And he shall make an atonement for the holy
sanctuary, and he shall make an atonement for the tabernacle of the
congregation, and for the altar, and he shall make an atonement for
the priests, and for all the people of the congregation. And this shall
be an everlasting statute unto you, to make an atonement for the children
of Israel for all their sins once a year. And he did as the LORD commanded
And the LORD
spake unto Moses, saying, Also on the tenth day of this seventh month
there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto
you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by
fire unto the LORD. And ye shall do no work in that same day: for it
is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the LORD
your God. For whatsoever soul it be that shall not be afflicted in that
same day, he shall be cut off from among his people. And whatsoever
soul it be that doeth any work in that same day, the same soul will
I destroy from among his people. Ye shall do no manner of work: it shall
be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
It shall be unto you a sabbath of rest, and ye shall afflict your souls:
in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye
celebrate your sabbath.
And ye shall have
on the tenth [day] of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye
shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work [therein]: But ye
shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD [for] a sweet savour; one
young bullock, one ram, [and] seven lambs of the first year; they shall
be unto you without blemish: And their meat offering [shall be of] flour
mingled with oil, three tenth deals to a bullock, [and] two tenth deals
to one ram, A several tenth deal for one lamb, throughout the seven
lambs: One kid of the goats [for] a sin offering; beside the sin offering
of atonement, and the continual burnt offering, and the meat offering
of it, and their drink offerings.
Exodus 30:1, 7-10
And thou shalt
make an altar to burn incense upon: [of] shittim wood shalt thou make
it. ... And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when
he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it. And when Aaron
lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual
incense before the LORD throughout your generations. Ye shall offer
no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering;
neither shall ye pour drink offering thereon. And Aaron shall make an
atonement upon the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the
sin offering of atonements: once in the year shall he make atonement
upon it throughout your generations: it [is] most holy unto the LORD.
As with the other moedim (appointed times), Yom Kippur is a holy convocation
in which no servile work could be done and as with other high holy days.
The word kippur (H3725)
is the noun plural form of kâphar
used primarily for the meaning atonement with other places interpreted as
reconciliation, forgiveness, purge away, cleanse, etc. There were
sacrifices, although on this holy day the population didn’t make the
sacrifice, it was made for them by the priests. As the plural form kippur
implies, it was a corporate sin offering for the people. Unlike other feasts,
this day is a fasting day.
We see Yom Kippur instituted after Aaron’s sons died offering before
the Lord. From that time Aaron was not to go into the Most Holy beyond the
veil where the mercy seat was except for once a year on the day of atonement.
Following him washing himself with water and putting on the holy garments,
a series of sacrifices were made.
- The high priest’s bullock for a sin offering to make atonement
for himself and his house.
- Two goats for a sin offering for the congregation of the children
of Israel. These two goats would be presented at the door of the tabernacle
of the Lord and have lots cast.
- One upon which the Lord’s lot fell is for the Lord and
a sin offering
- One upon which the other lot fell was to be the scapegoat, brought
before the Lord to make atonement. The high priest would lay his
hands on the head of the goat and confess the sins of the people,
putting them on the scapegoat, and releasing it into the wilderness.
- One ram for a burnt offering for the congregation of the children
It was this day the high priest took the blood from the sacrifices for
himself and his house and the children of Israel as a collective sin offering
and sprinkled it on and before the mercy seat of the Ark of the Covenant
seven times. The blood of the sacrifices were also smeared on the horns
of the altar.
And thou shalt
number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and
the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and
nine years. Then shalt thou cause the
trumpet of the jubile(H8643
“teruah”) to sound on the tenth [day] of the seventh month, in the day
of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land.
And ye shall hallow the fiftieth
year, and proclaim liberty throughout [all] the land unto all the inhabitants
thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every
man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
A jubile shall that fiftieth year be
unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of
itself in it, nor gather [the grapes] in it of thy vine undressed. For
it [is] the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase
thereof out of the field. In the year of this jubile ye shall return
every man unto his possession.
(Tabernacles), the feast is for seven days and the eight day is a holy convocation.
Following this pattern on a longer schedule,
(Feast of Weeks), or Pentecost counts 7 weeks from the day after
during Unleavened Bread and the day after is a holy convocation.
Jubilee extends that timing out even more where it is the length of a
year following 7 Sabbath years, or 49 years. The following year on Yom Kippur
is the Jubilee on 10 Tishri, Yom Kippur. It is interesting that the same
word translated as Jubilee is the word used for blowing of the feast of
trumpets, “teruah.” So every 50th year on Yom Teruah is the
memorial blowing of trumpets and 10 days later on Yom Kippur is another
trumpet sounded memorializing the year of jubilee.
Historically this was not followed or well documented so there are lots
of different ideas of when these 50th years are supposed to happen. Currently
the most intriguing one is presented in the
documentary series, reviewed below.
Just after Yeshua was tempted in the wilderness for 40 days, an example
of the coming
hour of temptation on the world, He went to Galilee teaching in the
And he came to Nazareth,
where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the
synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read. And there was
delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened
the book, he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the
Lord [is] upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel
to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance
to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind,
to set at liberty them that are
bruised, To preach the acceptable year of the Lord. And he closed
the book, and he gave [it] again to the minister, and sat down. And
the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him.
And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled
in your ears.
Every 50th year liberty was proclaimed for the year of jubilee. Was Yeshua
pointing to this time in 27 AD as the year of jubilee?
And almost all things
are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no
In the Septuagint, the Greek word
áphesis is the same word used for jubile in Leviticus 25, Leviticus
27:17-24, and Numbers 36:4. Given that Yom Kippur was the annual sin offering
for the people and every 50th one was a jubilee, the speaking of the shedding
of blood for liberty makes sense in the context of Yeshua’s sacrifice
once and for all. It would be around 2½ years from the start of His
ministry in 27 AD when He would be crucified on
Pesach in 30 AD not for Himself, but for the sins of the world. Daniel
[There is] therefore
now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not
after the flesh, but after the Spirit. For the law of the Spirit of
life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.
Yeshua read from Isaiah at the beginning of His ministry, but His death
and resurrection gave us the promised freedom. So was the 50th year in 27
AD when He read from it or 30 AD when the liberty arrived? The latter makes
the most sense, although the jubilee had long ago stopped being tracked.
Leviticus 16:12-13, 17
shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the altar
before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and
bring [it] within the vail: And
he shall put the incense upon
the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the
mercy seat that [is] upon the testimony, that he die not: ...
And there shall be no man in
the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement
in the holy [place], until he come out, and have made an atonement
for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of
Another interesting correlation comes in the statement that no man should
be in the tabernacle of the congregation when the atonment is being made.
And after that
I looked, and, behold, the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony
in heaven was opened: And the seven angels came out of the temple, having
the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen, and having their
breasts girded with golden girdles. And one of the four beasts gave
unto the seven angels seven golden vials full of the wrath of God,
who liveth for ever and ever. And
the temple was filled with
smoke from the glory of God, and from his power; and
no man was able to enter into
the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.
It seems that there might be some correlation here. The high priest was
to bring coals from the altar in a censer to the Most Holy and there put
incense on it to fill the room with a cloud of incense. That same word translated
vial is used in the Septuagint in Exodus 27:3, Exodus 38:3, Numbers 4:14
and elsewhere referring to the temple instruments used. So we see in the
future, the last seven plagues that complete the judgements of God are seen
being poured out on the earth.
It can’t be said with great confidence, but it may be that the
timing of the pouring out of the last of God’s wrath happens in very
quick succession on the last Yom Kippur of the 70th week of Daniel. Over
the course of the next six months, the censers would be poured out leading
to Armageddon when Yeshua returns to defeat the gathered armies that next
spring around the time of Pesach.
And when he had
opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven about the space
of half an hour. And I saw the seven angels which stood before God;
and to them were given seven trumpets. And another angel came and stood
at the altar, having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much
incense, that he should offer [it] with the prayers of all saints upon
the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense,
[which came] with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God
out of the angel’s hand. And the angel took the censer, and filled
it with fire of the altar, and cast [it] into the earth: and there were
voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake. And the
seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.
We also see in Revelation, just after the
time of Jacob’s trouble when Israel has been protected in the
wilderness and the innumerable multitude are in heaven with palm branches.
The seventh seal is broken and an angel stands at the altar with a golden
censer and incense that is offered with the prayers of the saints. That
censer is filled with fire from the altar and cast to earth just before
the wrath of God begins.
So it would seem both the beginning and the completion of the wrath of
God comes with censers being used to cast fire from the altar in heaven
to earth and the seven last plagues respectively.
Spring and Fall Moedim
If you recall from the study on
it was the tenth day of the first month (Nisan) that every man, according
to the house of their fathers, was to collect a male lamb under a year old
for the house. This lamb had to be without blemish and cared for to ensure
it remained so for 4 days. So too on Yom Kippur were the seven lambs of
the first year to be without blemish. Then on the fourteenth day of the
first month, on Preparation Day before dusk of the feast of unleavened bread,
it was to be killed and eaten.
There is an interesting parallel between the first month of Nisan and
Passover and the seventh month of Tishri and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonment)
and Sukkot (Tabernacles).
Yom Kippur falls on the tenth day, which is when the Messiah entered Jerusalem
to present Himself as the Lamb of God at His Father’s house 6 months
earlier. It could be that the lack of recognition of their Messiah 2,000
years ago is reversed during the events of the
days of repentance when they call on the Lord and join in the chorus
of those who did recognize Him at the triumphal entry in 30 AD. Matthew
Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of the Jewish year.
Many Jews who do not observe any other Jewish custom will refrain from
work, fast and/or attend
services on this day. Yom Kippur occurs on the 10th day of
The holiday is instituted at Leviticus 23:26 et seq. The name “Yom
Kippur” means “Day of Atonement,” and that pretty
much explains what the holiday is. It is a day set aside to “afflict
the soul,” to atone for the sins of the past year. In
Awe, I mentioned the “books” in which God inscribes
all of our names. On Yom Kippur, the judgment entered in these books
is sealed. This day is, essentially, your last appeal, your last chance
to change the judgment, to demonstrate your repentance and make amends.
Yom Kippur is a complete Sabbath; no work can be performed on that
day. It is well-known that you are supposed to refrain from eating and
drinking (even water) on Yom Kippur. It is a complete, 25-hour fast
beginning before sunset on the evening before Yom Kippur and ending
after nightfall on the day of Yom Kippur. The
also specifies additional restrictions that are less well-known: washing
and bathing, anointing one’s body (with cosmetics, deodorants,
etc.), wearing leather shoes (Orthodox
Jews routinely wear canvas sneakers under their dress clothes on Yom
Kippur), and engaging in sexual relations are all prohibited on Yom
Possible Yom Kippur Fulfillments?
When the Son
of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then
shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: And before him shall be gathered
all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd
divideth his sheep from the goats: And he shall set the sheep on his
right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto
them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom
prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was an hungred,
and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger,
and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited
me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer
him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty,
and gave thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in?
or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison,
and came unto thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily
I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of
these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Then shall he say also unto
them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire,
prepared for the devil and his angels: For I was an hungred, and ye
gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: I was a stranger,
and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison,
and ye visited me not. Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord,
when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or
sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Then shall he answer
them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one
of the least of these, ye did it not to me. And these shall go away
into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.
Judgments by Gavin Finley MD
The Sheep-Goat Judgment is a teaching
given to us by Jesus in the Olivet Discourse. It is also a very important
prophecy of what will happen to those outside the covenant at the end
of this age. The Sheep-Goat Judgment is not the judgment seat of Christ.
The Elect are not in view here. The judgment here concerns the nations,
the gentiles, the heathen, if you will. This judgment will take place
at the return of Christ. It is a judgment of individuals who are not
under the Eternal Covenant. These people have not yet been saved. They
are not covered under the blood of Christ, the promised Sacrifice Lamb.
The Sheep-Goat Judgment occurs at the Second Coming of Christ.
As we shall see further along in this article, the biblical study of
the two turtledoves sheds some further light on this epic event. Because
the Sheep-Goat Judgment is not made upon the basis of someone knowing
Messiah directly. It is a blood covenant connection to be sure. It is
not a judgment based upon “works” as many evangelicals erroneously
assert. But the covenant connection in the Sheep-Goat Judgment involves
a triangle. Three people or three parties are involved. This is what
sets this judgment apart from the other judgments we see in scripture.
A person is either allowed entry into the Millennium as a sheep or they
are cut off and damned as a goat. This covenant assessment is not made
under the basis of a direct covenant with Messiah. There is not one
to be had. These people are gentiles. They are outside the covenant
of salvation. They do not have a saving knowledge and a relationship
with the God of Israel. If they did they would not be considered gentiles.
Rather, this judgment is an indirect second order covenant. It is based
upon the witness of a third party. And the covenant with Messiah is
confirmed through the sponsoring witness of that third party contact,
someone who does know Messiah.
The Sheep-Goat Judgment as we
see it outlined in Matthew 25:31-46 a blood covenant judgment. It sets
forth the basis for the returning Messiah’s judgment of the people
of the nations. This judgment will occur after the Battle of Armageddon
at the end of the age.
It is important to understand that this
is a judgment made here on earth. It is not the Final Judgment of souls
before the throne of God. This is not the entry into the pearly gates
of heaven. Nor is it the judgment seat of Christ. The entry of souls
into the heavenly realms is not in view here. The people in question
here are those remaining on the earth in their mortal bodies at the
end of this age. The saints, both the living and the dead, have been
raised up or harpazod. They will have already been glorified at the
Resurrection-harpazo. They will be in new spiritual bodies not unlike
the sort of body Jesus was seen with after His resurrection. The sheep
and the goats will be those left behind on earth.
Judgment is not the judgment of souls for entry into heaven. Rather,
it is a judgment of living mortal individuals here on earth before they
are permitted entry into the earthly Millennium of Messiah. This is
a covenant matter between God and mankind. The returning Messiah is
back on earth judging the nations. After the awful history of humanistic
mankind during the Apocalypse Messiah has every right to come in judgment
of the nations. Because man-centered government during the final seven
years of this age will have brought this planet to the very brink of
The sheep and the goats are people who remain here
on earth and are at the threshold of the new Millennium. This is that
glorious new age which will be established by Messiah for a literal
1,000 years. He has every right to judge who comes into His Kingdom.
and to accept or reject whomsoever He wills. The scriptures are quite
clear as to what happens. The sheep will enter in. The goats will not.
Here in this judgment we see certain mortals being given permission
to pass into the Messiah’s earthly Kingdom. The Sheep-Goat Judgment
is the judgment of the gentiles or heathen nations. Christian and Messianic
believers, those who had been in direct personal covenant with Christ/Messiah
are not in view here. At the time of the Sheep-Goat Judgment they will
no longer be earthbound mortals. They will have been glorified. They
will no longer be bound by time or space.
List of Dates
Yom Kippur will occur on the following days of the secular calendar:
- Jewish Year 5784: sunset September 24, 2023 - nightfall September
- Jewish Year 5785: sunset October 11, 2024 - nightfall October 12,
- Jewish Year 5786: sunset October 1, 2025 - nightfall October 2,
- Jewish Year 5787: sunset September 20, 2026 - nightfall September
- Jewish Year 5788: sunset October 10, 2027 - nightfall October 11,
- Jewish Year 5789: sunset September 29, 2028 - nightfall September
- Jewish Year 5790: sunset September 18, 2029 - nightfall September
- Jewish Year 5791: sunset October 6, 2030 - nightfall October 7,